Since the introduction by Ubuntu of UFW (Uncomplicated FireWall) back in 2008 it has been my tool of choice for simple firewall configuration. Whilst it may lack the depth and sophistication of an enterprise level product, its simplicity makes it straight-forward and quick to secure servers in simple use-cases.Continue reading “UFW Cheat Sheet”
openDKIM and Postfix on Ubuntu Server 12.04LTS
You probably found this post because you already know what DKIM is and want to implement it, but for those of you who need more information Wikipedia has a good entry on the subject;
This little walkthrough has been based upon a Ubuntu 12.04LTS server with Postfix; your mileage may very depending on your setup. At a minimum you will need:
- Root access to your mail server
- Access to update the dns records for your domain
Firstly, install opendkim from the repositories. There is some good information available there too.
sudo apt-get install opendkim
You must decide on what “selector” you wish to use. The selector is essentially a word to describe the key you wish to use. Here I am going to use the selector 201204 as the key became valid in April 2012 (cunning eh?). Obviously, my domain will be brabeum.com.
So onward. Generate the keys in your home directory, using your chosen selector and domain.
opendkim-genkey -s 201204 -d brabeum.com
This will create two files, 201204.txt and 201204.private containing the public and private keys respectively. You must publish the content of the public key to your authoritative DNS server. Three things to note;
- openDKIM 2.5.2 on Ubuntu omits the k= after v=DKIM1;
- you should add the t=y flag to indicate to receiving servers that you are testing DKIM but not actively using it yet.
- You should use a short TTL (time to live) so that you can change the key without waiting ages for it to propagate though DNS.
DNS implementations vary, but you should end up with an entry something like this (I’ve shortened the key because of line breaks);
201204._domainkey IN TXT v=DKIM1; k=rsa; t=y; p=MIGfM..[snip]..QIDAQAB
Remember to reload your DNS configuration after addition.
Now, test the key…
opendkim-testkey -d brabeum.com -s 201204 -k 201204.private -vvv
And you should get output similar to below.
opendkim-testkey: key loaded from 201204.private opendkim-testkey: checking key '201204._domainkey.brabeum.com' opendkim-testkey: key not secure opendkim-testkey: key OK
Note that opendkim is reporting that the key is not secure. This relates to the fact that DNSSEC is not implemented on my DNS server and theoretically somebody could intercept the DNS lookup and replace it with their own key.
Once we are happy with the key test, move the private key to /etc/mail
cd /etc/mail sudo mv /home/basil/201204.private .
Setup openDKIM by editing /etc/default/opendkim with your favourite editor and add the following line to the end.
Then edit /etc/opendkim.conf and add the following lines
Domain brabeum.com KeyFile /etc/mail/201204.private Selector 201204
And restart opendkim
sudo service opendkim restart
Lastly we configure postfix. Edit /etc/postfix/main.cf and add the lines to the end
sudo service postfix restart
So now you need to send some test messages through your newly configured postfix server. At the receiving end you should see some new headers, one of which will show similar to below (note that Google recognize it as test mode as we still have the t=y flag applied).
Once you are happy that all is well, you can remove the testing flag and increase TTL.
If you have never heard of it, Folding@home is a distributed computing effort run by the Pande lab at Stanford University researching the “folding” of proteins. The idea is simple; instead of building an expensive supercomputer to model protein folding, allow ordinary people to donate their spare CPU cycles.
Most modern computers spend an inordinate amount of time at idle; even my ancient laptop with its Mobile Pentium 4 at 2.66Mhz is usually showing in excess of 85% idle when running no applications on Natty. FAH (as Folding@home is usually abbreviated to) aims to use this spare capacity of hundreds-of-thousands of machines around the world and you can contribute too.Continue reading “Donate your spare CPU cycles to Folding@home”
So you have a web-server and you want to serve content by SSL? If you have found you way to here, you have probably discovered that browsers such as Firefox do not make it easy to use self-signed certificates; large scary error messages do not inspire confidence in most users. But there is an easy answer – StartSSL.Continue reading “Securing Apache for free with SSL and StartSSL”